Citizenship today: new challenges in a world of intensified migrations
Dept. of Social and Political Studies University of Milan MILANO, Italy
Citizenship today: new challenges in a world of intensified migrations.
Citizenship has been the main narrative describing the construction of political and social arrangements in modern societies, particularly in Europe. And yet it is nowadays criticized, described only as a new cleavage between citizens and non citizens, as such unable to sustain a tension towards community building. Other narratives have been proposed as more accurate to account for current socio-political transformations, particularly given the reduced role of national states. This paper aims at evaluating current critiques of citizenship by focussing on challenges raised by the growing impact of migration policies. A crossed analysis of the two sets of policies and their relations opens new insights over citizenship transformations. Citizenship is no longer viewed as an expansion of rights facilitating integration, rather as a pull factor contrasting with migration policies' restrictive orientation; symmetrically, citizenship seems to be less urgent in migrants' demands than other statuses, such as residence or permit of stay, in so far they give access to crucial rights. Against a prevailing trend to stress exclusive instead of inclusive features of citizenship, citizenship's and paerticularly social citizenship's capacity of social integration could help finding a different approach to migrations, less focused on control and more on actual integration of migrants in host societies.