Emotions at work as a key-factor of well-being in the workplace. An empirical study of local health service area Napoli 1
Agenzia Regionale Sanitaria Regione Puglia Bari, Italy
This study investigated the phenomenon of occupational dissatisfaction in health service employees in Naples, studying interaction between work environment and corporate social responsibility (CSR). The author used ethno-sociological methodology and the récit de vie technique - as proposed by Daniel Bertaux - in performing the study at two Hospitals in local health service area Na/1, in which 23 employees were interviewed.
The evidence emerging from the study´s setting enabled him to describe the phenomenon of forced motivation inherent in socio-economic push factors, thereby integrating the concept of motivation. The definition of forced motivation takes into consideration the environment´s socio-economic factors and combines them with Arlie Russell Hochschild´s concept of "emotional labour"; it is completed by the development of a theory of emotional dissonance, relating to the forced motivation found in the field, on the basis of Robert Zajonc´s contribution regarding Leon Festinger´s theory of cognitive dissonance.
The author therefore experimented with a technique of exploration and analysis of the récits de vie which enabled him to highlight the variables involved in the working of corporate organisational mechanisms, and divide these into 4 groups - structural, procedural, emotional and results - and, subsequently, to show, by drawing up specific analysis dossiers, the existence and direction of causal links between them, and to formalise them in relational strings. The final output of this technique consists in the graphic rendering of these strings in a socio-organisational diagram which shows the same number of relational networks as microcosms studied.
The analysis of this diagram showed the centrality of the emotional variable, in its negative disposition, and of some of the independent variables belonging to the "procedural" group in relation to the manifestation of workplace dissatisfaction among employees. This analysis was concluded by defining the phenomenon studied which, based on the specific variables directly involved in its creation, allows the parts of the working relationship to be balanced: with regard to the questions CSR poses the workplace, the responsibilities regarding the quality of corporate productivity and the protection of employees´ occupational welfare.