Factors and Trends of Work-Related Security in Russia
and State University ? Higher School of Economics Institute of Economy Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow, Russia
Centre for Social Studies State University ? Higher School of Economics Moscow, Russia
The paper deals with evaluation of socio-economic security in the world of work in Russia. The research is grounded upon multi-dimensional methodology for measuring and comparing people?s security designed by ILO. The empirical base is formed by two rounds of People?s Security Survey carried out in three Russian regions by our research team in 2002 and 2007 complemented by statistical and other relevant data available from official and independent sources.
To begin with, two sets of indices reflecting seven different aspects of work-related security are discussed. It is demonstrated that macro level indices are ill-suited for measuring outcome, they are mainly contextual. Moreover, they tell us nothing about distribution of work-related security among different categories of population and of factors impacting this distribution. Therefore, the emphasis is made upon micro level indices constructed on the basis of household survey data which allow grasping subjective perceptions of socio-economic security within different groups of employed population.
The main results obtained are as follows.
1. The key factors determining the work-related security level in Russia ? age, gender, place of living and health ? are absolutely or to a large extent out of control of the workers themselves.
2. During the period of economic stability (in between the two survey rounds), a considerable strengthening in 5 out of 7 aspects of work-related security was observed. The most prominent loss was in representation security reflecting protection of collective voice in the labour market, through independent trade unions and other bodies able to represent the interests of workers.
3. Public sector employees experienced the largest gains in work-related security with those employed by privatized enterprises falling slightly behind and employees in the new private sector being the main losers.
Additional hypothesis (to be tested by focus-group approach in three Russian regions in June 2009) are as follows. In the period of economic recession
- the relative importance of different security aspects as perceived by people shifts from ensuring decent income to labour market and employment security;
- demands and expectations of different categories of employed population in the field of work-related security become more differentiated and more strongly articulated.