Marketing Strategies and Efficacies for Nonprofit Cultural Organizations
Sociology Emory University Decatur, USA
Marketing strategies are essential not only for the interest accumulation of commercial companies but also for the development of nonprofit institutions. How do nonprofit cultural organizations promote their product, that is, how do they attract a larger audience to consume their cultural items in order to fulfill their organizational goal of preserving and propagating the arts and cultural genres? We can approach this inquiry by looking more carefully at three questions: (1) what the characteristics in different types of cultural organizations are; (2) what the organizations have done with respect to marketing what their promotion strategies are; (3) what the outcomes of their efforts are what kinds of participation changes they have achieved. Different types of cultural organizations with distinguishing characteristics may use different promotion strategies to increase the participation in their activities which may in turn lead to different marketing efficacies. In this article, I use the data from Survey of Arts and Cultural Organizations (2000) in which the respondents including government or not-for-profit art and cultural organizations in five geographic areas in the United States. Based on the original survey question about the strategies adopted by organizations to encourage more active participation, I classified the promotion strategies into three categories: economic capital strategies, social capital strategies, and cultural capital strategies. Based on the survey question about the different aspects of participation change in the organizations' programs or activities, the efficacies falls into five types: the overall numbers of participants, the racial/ethnic composition of participants, the number of participants who are residents/members of particular communities, the number of participants who are young people and families, and the number of participants who are lower-income persons. By analyzing the survey data, as a first step, I have found that organizations of different sizes indeed differ in their use of all kinds of social capital and cultural capital strategies and of several kinds of economic capital strategies. As a further step, I will try to establish a causal relation between the last two questions, that is, the patterns between the promotion strategies and their particular efficacies.