The Weight of Research Systems History in the Cosbtruction of the European S&T Space
Department of Quantitative Methods Lisbon University Institute, ISCTE Lisboa, Portugal
Department of Sociology Lisbon University Institute, ISCTE Lisboa, Portugal
In spite of the policies to construct a European S&T space, and the well succeeded steps concerning the science networks, the international mobility of researchers and students, its impact in scientists socialization and the design of a new relationship pattern, the weight of historical contexts of each country or groups of countries difficult S&T European integration. Research developed in this area shows that the S&T European space is stratified (Oliveira & Carvalho, 2008) whatever are the variables we use in the analysis (Oliveira & Carvalho, 2009).
science development and industry development during the last century are two sides of the same coin, which led in the central and northern European countries to the construction of the innovation systems (Lundval, B. 1992; Nelson, R. 1993) with basis on the implementation of multinational firms - the so called national champions - which developed their technological innovation with basis on national scientific institutions. Southern European countries and eastern European countries for different reasons, did not follow the same model. That's the reason why we do not have innovation systems of these parts of Europe, and we propose to use the concept of innovation space instead of innovation system (Oliveira, 2004, 2008). In this paper we will show how the development of science was straight linked to the development of industry, by focusing on the main characteristics of the history of science and industry during the second half of the last century. This will be supported by empirical information reporting examples from France, Germany, England and Portugal.