On "Cultural Catholicism" and experiments with religion in Slovakia
Slovak Academy of Sciences Institute of Ethnology Bratislava, Slovakia
The paper will give brief overview of the state of sociology of religion in Slovakia (kinds of approaches applied and theoretical framework developed). The core of the study will be devoted to the in-depth analyses of two phenomena picked up from sociological surveys conducted in Slovakia (international: EVS 1991, 1999; PCE 2000, ISSP 1998, 2004, 2005, and domestic).
The author is focused on two interesting phenomena: A) People may be churched without being religious; B) people may be unchurched without being secular.
A) Slovakia is widely known as one of the "towers" of Catholicism in Europe (64% of Catholics in 2000). Nevertheless, detailed analyses show that only 38% of Catholics in Slovakia would be characterized as "core worshippers". This "deviation" from institutionalized Catholicism is visible in all dimensions of religiosity (intellectual, dogmatic, ethical and liturgical). The author regards the typology Catholics religiosity of Janusz Marianski (applied on Polish material in 1981) and the concept of "cultural religion" of N. J. Demerath III (2000) as very productive for Slovak settings. Author claims that evolution from "church oriented Catholicism" towards the "selective Catholicism" (or "Cultural Catholicism") in Slovakia should not be "simply" regarded as detraditionalized (modernized) Catholicism. More probably, Catholicism functions here "only" as a proper "label", it is a way of how to be religiously connected without being religiously active.
B) The next part of the study is devoted mostly to the non-institutional types of religiosity. The author points out, that recent sociological approach would reconsider the categories of "churchliness", "confession" and "conversion". She points out that in recent Slovak (urban) environment we meet with various combinations of categories "belonging", "believing" and "taking active part in church activities". Following the various forms of conversions and various forms of institutional or private forms of religiosity/spirituality she designs a typology operating with 1. experimental religiosity, 2. multileveled religiosity, 3. parallel religiosity, 4. migratory religiosity, 5. composite religiosity, 6. fuzzy religiosity.