Between ethnonational and civic national: The Hungarian Minority Identities from Romania, Slovakia, Serbia and Ukraine
Sociology Dept. Babes-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca, Romania
In this paper will comparatively analyze the way in which ethnonational belonging and the social identification to the majority National community functions among different ethnic Hungarian minority communities in Central and Eastern Europe. Secondly, we also aim to understand how citizenship and the relationship towards the state of residence is framed and reflected in the ethnonational identity of Hungarian minorities, including majority / minority relations. Researching this topic is actual givent that the social changes, emerged by the European integration significantly modified the Hungarian society and of the Hungarian minority communities from Romania, and Slovakia, respectively from Serbia and Ukraine.
According to the research hypotheses the identity and the changes in the identity of Hungarian communities living outside the borders of Hungary are determined by the following social processes:
According to the research results, taking into consideration the content of spontaneous national identity and group limits, Hungarians from outside the borders of Hungary do not entirely behave as a unitary group. We can observe differences according to the EU national or not. Still, there is a majority of them indentify with the Hungarian ethnocultural nation in transborder sense, but a significant part of our respondents feel that they are also connected to the Romanian, Slovak, Serbian, Ukrainian civic nation. However, these larger social groups are less important in the natural national identity of Hungarians from outside the borders of Hungary. This may be empirically grasped both at the level of the Hungarian community from the region as primary in-group and the perception of social distances.
According to identity profiles, in every country there is an absolute or relative majority with a different weight who defines its national belonging in terms of a Hungarian regional community in Romania or Slovakia, and in a certain sense it accepts that it belongs to the Romanian civic nation as a secondary tie and it considers that its country and/or region is its fatherland and homeland.