A Comparative Analysis of Variations in Islamic Faith and Practice among Muslim Immigrants in Europe and Japan
Faculty of Social Sciences Waseda University Tokyo, Japan
This study analyzes the variations in Islamic faith and practice among adult male Muslim immigrants in Europe (188 cases from 21 countries), drawing on the European Social Survey conducted in 2002/2003, and those in Tokyo Metropolitan Area (149 cases), drawing on the Social Survey of Muslim Population in Japan conducted in 2005 and 2006 by Waseda University (PI: Hirofumi TANADA). A preliminary analysis by the year of entry shows that the Islamic faith in Europe (% choosing religiosity scales of 8-10) becomes stronger from those having entered 1-5 years ago (40.5%) to those having entered 6-10 years ago (44.4%), but it goes down among those having entered 11-20 years ago (31.9%) and goes up again among those having entered more than 20 years ago (46.9%). The religious faith as measured by the very strict observance of Islamic rules does not change linearly in Japan, either. It is 61.5% among those having entered in 2005-2006, but it goes down to 21.5% among those having entered between 2000 and 2004. It goes up to 43.5% among those having entered between 1995 and 1999, but goes down to 26.7% among those having entered between 1990 and 1994 and to 5.9% among those having entered before 1990.
The frequency of attendance at prayer service in Japan shows similar changes with the year of entry and the percentage of attending more than once goes down from 26.9% (2005-2006 entrants) to 23.1% (2000-2004), but goes up to 39.1% (1995-1999) and goes down to 26.7% (1990-94) and again to 17.6% (pre-1990). But in Europe the percentage continues to go up from 5.4% (1-5 years ago), through 8.3% (6-10) and 12.8% (11-20) and 17.2% (20+). But the percentage of prayer once a week goes down in the last group by almost 10%. Perhaps, these non-linear changes in Europe and Japan are related to the timing of rise of religious fundamentalism in sending countries in addition to the integration process in receiving countries. At the time of meeting, the results of comparative logit analyses will be also presented.