Strategies for promoting active ageing in Europe: a review of the literature
CIES ISCTE Lisboa, Portugal
In the context of the ageing of the working population in Europe, concerns about social protection, economic growth and the future of the labour supply have given rise to a number of recommendations and political initiatives aimed at encouraging people to continue working until later in life.
Where employment rates for older age groups and the average retirement age were concerned, in 2006, Portugal?s situation was relatively comfortable compared to the rest of the European Union. Nonetheless, levels of schooling and certified qualifications in Portugal are particularly low in the older groups of the working population and so questions like lifelong learning, productivity and job quality are acquiring an important strategic dimension.
These questions raise the issues of 1) the role of employers and the importance of organisational age management strategies to promote the sustainability of employment of the working population aged over 45 and 2) social attitudes of employers and employees to lowering or raising the retirement age.
On the basis of these issues, we conduct a sociological study with a view to making an analysis of institutional and organisational opportunities and constraints and of expectations and social attitudes in the transition to retirement.
The article presents a first state of the art of Portuguese and international bibliography review based on what a conceptual model of the study was construct. We plan to show how the relationship between ageing and the labour market has been conceptualized in Europe, systematise the answers that social policies have been putting forward and compare them to the situation in Portugal. In particular, we wish to situate and characterise the reality in Portugal with regard to the social and academic profile of older workers and concrete public measures that have been applied.