I'm a mother not a worker ..... for a while (?) Back to the role conflict. An analisys of female paths between work and life: results from the field
DISSPI Università degli Studi di Urbino "Carlo Bo" Urbino, Italy
By international comparison, Italy continues to show a significant gender gap that distinguishes the different local labor markets. Two are the main sources of imbalance around which the design of gender inequality in Italy: the continuing low participation of women in the labor market and the low contribution of men in domestic work and care.
In the background persists a model of "familistic" welfare that delegate widely women the task of balancing work and life and that in a broader process of territorial fragmentation and reduction of resources will further reduce the already low services in support of women, men and families.
This paper presents the results of a field research conducted in 13 municipalities in the province of Pesaro, region Marche (Center Italy), area representative for the Italian production model of the Third Italy or the so-called molecular capitalism.
In recent years this model has shown its weaknesses, first through the internationalization of markets, and now in consequence of a severe economic downturn that is profoundly changing the local employment structure putting under risk the weakest part of labor force, especially women, whose participation in the work in this area is higher than the Italian average.
Indeed, for a decade, the rate of female employment, which had grown more than men since the mid 90s, has been in decline: the more recent data show a significant decrease the employment of women as well as an increase in unemployment.
The collection of 1086 interviews and questionnaires with women (about three quarters of them employeed) has enabled us to reconstruct a picture of a local context that has seen a gradual reduction of employment opportunities in response to an increasingly educated female. The characteristics of demand for local labor is an obstacle for women who want to develop their work ambitions, both for women who seek a satisfactory balance between working time, time for the care and time for themselves. The model for development of small and medium enterprises - which today is confronted with the crisis - is a model for some time a lack of complaint inclusion of women.