Welfare, Employment and Social inclusion: an European perspective
Sociology University of Pisa Rosignano Solvay (Livorno), ITALY
The process of European integration represents a very complex challenge, specially with the recent enlargement of European Union, opening the debate about the kind and the ways to realise a solid process of social cohesion, having respect of "diversity" as opportunity and not as disadvantage.
In this perspective, this paper analyses the future of European Social Model, focalising our attention not on the economic dimension of this process, but on the social dynamic and challenges which all European societies are facing with. In particular, the attention will put on the process of social inclusion as the main objective of European social policies, in relation with the challenge of employment and citizenship. On the basis of this issues, the paper concerns a critical analysis about the future and possibilities to improve the social dimension in European societies, seen as a particularly balance between the preservation of the diversity and the promotion of the equality.
After a theoretical reflection on comparative studies of welfare state, the paper analyses in particular the topic of the Open Method of Coordination, the approaches of flexicurity and the Transitional Labour Markets, as tools to reflect both on methodological and practical aspects to face the challenge of European social change.