Public culture as the answer to calls-problems
Social management Russian State Social University Moscow, Russia
Now among sociologists there is no unity of understanding of a society and public culture (PC). However, the success can be achieved, if the differentiation of social sciences will be accompanied by their integration. As one of the most effective integration means is offered updated organicist approach to a society and PC.
According to the new organicist approach, developed in Russian State Social University, the society is considered as ?the system deciding social problems?, and PC as set of samples of PC such as laws and legal acts, social institutes, social values and norms, innovations, organizational systems, national projects and goal programs being means (tools) of the decision of social problems. Thus, all PC is represented as the answer to calls-problems arising before a society.
On each new call, on each new social problem a society should ?answers? to corresponding highly effective samples of PC. Therefore state must constantly watch the PC, otherwise in it will be collects a lot of superfluous, ineffective samples of PC, that can lead to a ?paralysis? of the social mechanism of a society.
PC is subdivided into natural, artificial and combined. On the other hand, PC includes every means (tools) of the decision of social problems. PC it is focused on satisfaction of social needs, including economic, political, military, etc. Thus, PC can be treated as all that is created by people (purposely or inadvertently), is accepted by a society and it used by it for the answer to calls-problems, i.e. for satisfaction in public needs.
In spite of the fact that PC constantly changes under influence of calls-problems, these changes should not concern ?nucleus of PC?, i.e. system of base values and social norms corresponding to them (P.Sorokin), protected historically formed social mechanism (A.Compte) which includes a state as part of social mechanism.
The social mechanism reveals and solves social problems-calls, creating for new samples of PC or using already existing samples. Solving problems the social mechanism aspires to keep the formed order in a society.