Two Models of Social and Political Communication
Russian-and-Baltic Center Affiliation of Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of Sociology RAS Moscow, Russia
The poly-subjectivity is inherent to the Christian world by definition. The subjectivity assumes the presence of two and more parties. In the Christian world and Russia was its part the individuals, the organized communities (shops, universities, monasteries), cities, monarchy are to be subjective. As a result of the Tatar-Mongolian invasion in Russia there has been created a situation when the Power has become the unique subject. The traditions of the monolog political system have come from here. Within this tradition the Power carriers immanently feel themselves not as the officials employed by a society for carrying out concrete state duties, but certain judges of destinies. Here it does not bear any civil responsibility before the society for carrying out of those functions that the State apparatus is obliged to carry out under the contract with it, i.e. under the Constitution. In the monolog system at the individual as soon as he becomes a carrier of imperious powers, the idea of a civil responsibility before the society depreciates or disappears from the structure of consciousness. Therefore, any attempt to control the Power by the society is perceived by it as something ill-intentioned and even as a crime.
In the monolog tradition there is a danger and to the Power. The Power can not talk to the people, even when it is politically useful for it that is possible to illustrate with numerous historical examples. The information received from the original resource is the most valuable material on correction of the State policy with the aim of keeping the Power itself. But the Power instinctively hinders an occurrence and development of public initiative, local government, voluntary associations of citizens and other forms of free associations of people, i.e. all that promotes an occurrence of a public dialog.
The dialog structure of the Power, on the contrary, is oriented on the development of the lower layers of society. Otherwise, the power will not receive a partner for a dialog and will eliminate a concept of a dialog itself. The dialog assumes the presence of two subjects of this process of information change.