Socio-Cultural Diffusion in the Baltic Countries
Russian-and-Baltic Center Affiliation of Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of Sociology RAS Moscow, Russia
The distinctions between representatives of ethnic communities are caused, first of all, by those cultural-historical dominants which are the kernel of consciousness, the base of ethnic mentality and which will be always capable to "punch" the surface layers that testifies of the stability of the archetype of ethnos. But at the same time there are some psychological motivations connected with top (or surface, in particular, "television") layers of mass consciousness. In these motivations there is no direct correlation with an ethnic belonging of individuals. So, in "non-tolerant" statistical groups it is observed the highest confrontation of consciousnesses and thus rather slightly depending on an ethnic belonging. In these cases the various over-layers as a result of an individual life experience, and not at all a kernel of national consciousness, play a defining role in the formation of psychological motivations of a person.
The specifics of a present situation in the Baltic countries consist in the expansion of an ambivalent layer which representatives show an inconsistent behavior within the limits of its ethical system. Among the part oriented on the European values, there were displayed the signs of confrontational consciousness. Especially it is inherent to the leaders of the national-radical part of a political spectrum, namely by their efforts in Latvia and Estonia there was reproduced the ranging of ethnos on grades that was peculiar to the state system of the USSR and against which recently they so actively acted. With that only difference that in the USSR there were never people without citizenship. On the other hand, among a part of the Russian people who always showed hostility to local culture in general, and to the local forms of social behavior, in particular, now it is fixed a rather steady preference of a dialog, inclination to the compromise. Thus, the verbal and social behavior of carriers of non-characteristic preferences shows that the diaspora does not always conduct itself as diaspora. Increase of an ambivalent layer in the two-commune state is a characteristic and a very important indicator of changes in psychology of representatives of Russian community occurring in Baltic countries.