Social Mobility of Scientists in Russia, Europe and the USA in the XXI Century
Center for Sociological and Science Studies Researches St Petersburg Branch of the Institute for the History of Science and Technology Russian Academy of Science Russian Federation,
Center for Sociological and Science Studies Researches St Petersburg Branch of the Institute for the History of Science and Technology Russian Academy of Science Petersburg, Russian Federation
The scientist mobility is an integral part of the modern scientific activities that will grow, widen, and become deeper with the further progress of science.
Russia?s migrational mobility has a marked emigrational character and is often irreversible. The scientist migration flows at three levels. The first level: a transfer of the best talented and skilled Russian scientists from province to the capital cities of Moscow and St.Petersburg. The second level: moving from Russia to Europe. The third one: relocation from Europe to the USA.
The scientist moving from the province to Moscow and St.Petersburg is a pronounced feature of the Russian mobility of scientists. Europe and more so the USA do not have such a problem.
The social mobility of scientists in the USA in a percent ratio is several times higher than in other countries. Scientists from all over the world keep on arriving in that country which can boast the largest number of scientists in the world.
The issue of the ever increasing emigration of European scientists to the USA and Canada is actively debated in Europe. The reasons of that phenomenon are the following: higher salaries, better conditions for research, a wish to work in an international scientific milieu.
Europe takes various measures to manage the scientist mobility. New programs appear that encourage a reverse flow of scientists who have achieved good results in North America. Besides, Europe tries, among other measures, to fight the shortage of scientists at the Russia's expense, or Russian scientists, to put it more correctly.
Mobility is really required in the scientist community. It is a source of obtaining researchers for new scientific fields and it promotes cooperation between scientists from various disciplines and different regions and countries. Nevertheless, the scientist mobility can be a negative factor for the conditions of the domestic science if its scope is steadily increasing and threatening to exhaust intellectual resources. Unlike other fields where the mobility periods are usually short and often restricted by certain career stages, the researcher mobility concerns people of all ages and social positions.