Societal, cultural political differences and similarities within Europe. Where and about what do we merge? What are the heavy trends? Is Europe coming together or falling apart?
The paper will focus on changes in the occupational structure of European societies. It will examine to what extent western European structures continue to follow the patterns outlined by Gøsta Esping-Andersen and others during the 1990s, and will consider how former ‘second world’ countries fit into these patterns. A primary role in maintaining systematic differences among groups of countries will be found in public-service provision, especially of care services. This leads to speculation concerning the role of this stable form of employment in sustaining general economic activity, and will be related to more general issues questioning the primacy of flexibility over security in the maintenance of sustainable employment.
Colin Crouch is Professor of Governance and Public Management at the Business School of Warwick University. He is also the External Scientific member of the Max-Planck-Institute for the Study of Societies at Cologne. He previously taught sociology at the LSE, and was fellow and tutor in politics at Trinity College, Oxford, and professor of sociology at the University of Oxford. Until December 2004 he was professor of sociology at the European University Institute, Florence. He is a Fellow of the British Academy.
He is chairman, and former joint editor, of The Political Quarterly, and past-president of the Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics (SASE). He has published within the fields of comparative European sociology and industrial relations, on economic sociology, and on contemporary issues in British and European politics. He is currently studying changes in the governance of labour markets and social policy in eastern and western Europe. His most recent books include: Social Change in Western Europe (1999); Postdemocrazia (2003) (in English as Post-Democracy (2004)); and Capitalist Diversity and Change: Recombinant Governance and Institutional Entrepreneurs (2005).
Expectations and reality in new European democracies. Two decades of changes.
The societies of the former communist countries have had some conceptions of democracy, free market economy and social equality with which they began to built new political and economic systems. What happened later? Are their conceptions (and which?) modified or unchanged? How did societies react to the often unexpected reality? Going further, whose conceptions are changed and in which direction? Are the post-communist differ from others?
Renata Siemienska is professor at the Institute of Sociology, Warsaw University, director of the Institute for Social Studies of the Warsaw University, head of the Center of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies at the Institute, and chairholder of the UNESCO Chair “Women, Society and Development”, Warsaw (Poland). She has lectured as visiting professor in several American and Canadian universities and served as president of the UN International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW), as expert of UN, UNESCO and the Council of Europe. She was a member of the Advisory Board of the Plenipotentiary of Equal Status of Men and Women in Poland, member of several editorial boards of international journals. She has published several books and essays on comparative cross-national value systems, ethnic relations, women’s public participation, socialization, system of education and family. She took part in cross-national studies: World Values Survey (in 83 countries), on functioning of local communities and local governments , Polish-American study on ethical reasoning of councilors and civil servants of local governments, on gendering economic and political elites (in 27 industrialized countries), on women in European Universities (in 7 countries), Work & Care (in 6 countries). She also was member of the Europ. Commission experts’ group “Gender and Excellence” (evaluation of gender distribution of grants by national institutions in all member countries of the European Union). The most recent publications: books: 2005, (ed.) Gender- Elections-Power.Warsaw; in English: Siemienska, R., A. Zimmer (eds.)(2007) Gendered Trajectories of Academic Careers in Cross-National Perspective.Warsaw: Scholar (distribution also: Budrich Verlag); 2007, Poland: citizens and democratic politics. In: Klingemann, Hans-Dieter, Dieter Fuchs and Jan Zielonka (eds.) Democracy and Political Culture in Eastern Europe. London and New York: Routledge. 203-234.
Migration, Citizenship and Work: Dilemmas for the European Social Project
Originally citizenship emerged as a corrective to the injustices caused by the capitalist market, by incorporating working classes through social benefits and ensuring social cohesion. European welfare states have successfully followed this formula for the most part of the post-World War II period. In the last couple of decades however certain developments have unsettled this formula. For one, the very meaning of ‘work’ and ‘worker’, on which the welfare state based on, has changed. The life-time, full employment is less and less a reality for large sections of labor market participants—flexibility, risk and precariousness have become defining elements of working life. The welfare state itself has gone through transformation as well, increasingly moving away from a system of ‘passive benefits’ to ‘social investment’ in human capital. These developments are coupled with a new emphasis in education on ‘active citizenship’, which envision participatory individuals, who are effective and adaptable in an increasingly competitive global market, and ready to contribute at local, national and international levels. In my talk, I will consider the implications of this new alignment in policy between work, social benefits, and participation, for the migrant populations in Europe. I will give further consideration to the ramifications of the recently intensified debates on ‘social cohesion’, ‘integration’ and ‘responsibility’ in the light of this new societal realignment; and reflect on the changing foundations of good citizenship and good society in Europe.
Yasemin Soysal is past president of the European Sociological Association. Before arriving in Europe she has studied and worked in the US. Soysal has published extensively on the historical development and contemporary reconfigurations of the nation-state and citizenship in Europe; cultural and political implications of international migrations; and international discourses and regimes of human rights. Her current research projects include a comparative and longitudinal study of the changing concepts of ‘good citizen’ and ‘good society’ in Europe and Asia (particularly China, Japan and Korea) and a comparative survey of the ‘life course and self projections’ of the immigrant origin youth in European cities. Soysal has held several fellowships and guest professorships, including Wissenschaftskolleg, National Endowment of Humanities, National Academy of Education, German Marshall Fund, Max Planck Institute, European University Institute, Juan March Institute, and Hitotsubashi University.